VEGETARIAN, ken laming, kenneth laming, frugan, health, fresh food, raw food, famous vegetarian, vegan, nutrition, fitness,

CORRECT DIET

“YES”

“NO”

 FRESH WATER (plenty) NON-fluoride.

 ALL MEAT (just NOT required by Humans)

 A VARIETY OF FRUIT (plenty)

 ALCOHOL (wine, spirits and beer)

 A VARIETY OF VEGETABLES

 All DRUGS AND STIMULANTS

 CEREALS & GRAINS (very minimal)

 VITAMIN Supplements—Pills and Powders

 HERBS (very minimal)

 If possible, avoid Medical Drugs

 NUTS & SEEDS (very minimal)

 SOFT DRINKS and “gas” based water

Humans evolved as and are primarily FRUITARIANS.  However, we have strayed through the centuries along the road to “civilization” and have adopted a destructive diet and lifestyle - preserved foods, cooking food, eating meat, vitamin supplements, drugs (medical and others) alcohol, smoking, etc., and we now have cancer and heart related illnesses as our main cause of death.

ENZYMES:  All, life forms of every living thing (plant or animal) depends on the function of enzymes.  At any given moment, all of the work being done inside any cell is being done by enzymes. If you understand enzymes, you understand cells. Enzymes have extremely interesting properties that make them little chemical-reaction machines - an organic catalyst. The purpose of an enzyme in a cell is to allow the cell to carry out chemical reactions very quickly. These reactions allow the cell to build things or take things apart as needed. This is how a cell grows and reproduces. At the most basic level, a cell is really a little bag full of chemical reactions that are made possible by enzymes!

Enzymes are made from amino acids, and they are proteins. When an enzyme is formed, it is made by stringing together between 100 and 1,000 amino acids in a very specific and unique order. The chain of amino acids then folds into a unique shape. That shape allows the enzyme to carry out specific chemical reactions -- an enzyme acts as a very efficient catalyst for a specific chemical reaction. The enzyme speeds that reaction up tremendously.

For example, sugar maltose is made from two glucose molecules bonded together. The enzyme maltase is shaped in such a way that it can break the bond and free the two glucose pieces. The only thing maltase can do is break maltose molecules, but it can do that very rapidly and efficiently. Other types of enzymes can put atoms and molecules together. Breaking molecules apart and putting molecules together is what enzymes do, and there is a specific enzyme for each and every chemical reaction needed to make the cell work properly.

Consuming freshest foods and closer to the most natural (raw) state of that food, carries the highest load of enzymes.  As food is cooked, refrigerated, canned, or left out in the open, the natural enzymes deplete at a fast rate.  To microwave food or barbeque food, is a sure way of obliterating ALL enzymes within that food.  In fact, the molecular structure of the food changes dramatically to an extent of making the food become carcinogenic.  A bacterium like E. coli has about 1,000 different types of enzymes floating around in the cytoplasm at any given time.

ENZYMES = LIFE.    “Sweet mystery of life at last I've found you"

 Have you watched a jumbo-jet rise into the air, its wheels folding neatly out of sight as it speeds away to some distant land? Guided by electronic devices and computers, the pilot by radio, can speak, if he wishes, to either the local air traffic controller or to his home base, perhaps on the opposite side of the world. The traffic controller observes the aircrafts progress as a coded dot of light moving on a radar screen, and in the airplane itself the passengers can watch the latest movies. Powering the airplane and its 1,001 devices and computers are great jet engines burning vast quantities of carbon and hydrogen in the form of kerosene from large tanks in the wings.

The aircraft vanishes into the distance, leaving a white vapor trail high in the sky. You reflect on the wonders of civilization, the complexity of it all ...

Powered also by carbon and hydrogen (from food), combining with the oxygen from the atmosphere, are the microscopic cells of the body, each one a thousand times more complex than any jumbo-jet. Reflect again. Imagine, as you read these words, the chemical and electrical processes going on inside your brain. Imagine the same processes, stepped up, in the minds and bodies of two tennis players contesting a hard match, or say a jazz saxophone player improvising a hot solo--senses racing, fingers moving in a blur. Thoughts, actions and reactions--how can they occur so fast, billions of body cells so perfectly coordinated?

Enzymes: Every one of the countless processes within the body requires energy, released without the severe heat Of fire, with exact precision, at a speed too fast to comprehend. Enzymes make this possible.

As school students all know, chemical reactions can be speeded up by the use of catalysts--chemicals which, without changing in form themselves, can influence other chemicals to combine and change at great speed. Because they remain unchanged, catalysts can be used over and over again. Enzymes act as catalysts in the body, enabling the release of energy and the operation of metabolic processes to occur at lightning speed.

Enzymes, however, have characteristics surpassing those of chemical catalysts and appear to hold the key to the mystery of life itself. They have been described as possessing properties intermediate between dead colloids and living cells, and to carry outside of the cell certain properties belonging to living matter. Unlike simple chemical catalysts, enzymes are consumed. Enzymes perform two separate but overlapping functions in the body:

The constant metabolism to do with tissue maintenance and general body functions.

The digestion of food.

Enzymes, which are protein-like substances, are produced in countless forms by the body, and countless thousands of combinations or systems. Each enzyme exists for a specific purpose and there is not one body process--thought, digestion, movement or growth--that can occur without enzyme activity. Life, animal or vegetable, cannot exist without enzymes. For all intents and purposes, life and enzyme activity are one and the same. Enzyme levels in the body can be measured, and it is a fact that even though vitamins and mineral levels remain fairly constant throughout life, enzyme levels do not; they are highest in young adulthood and decline with age. Enzyme levels rise in acute illness, if the body has the resources, but are always low in chronic disease.

Dr Edward Howell, of Chicago (now of Fort Myers, Florida) in his book The Status of Food Enzymes in Digestion and Metabolism* says: "The fact that the enzyme content of organisms is depleted with increasing old age is forcibly presented when fluids or tissues are examined at different ages. After full mature growth has been attained there is a slow and gradual decrease in the enzyme content of organisms. When the enzyme content becomes so low that metabolism cannot proceed at a proper level, death overtakes the organism". This decline in enzyme production is explainable by the silting up and degeneration of the body cells which, it appears, is the cause of the problem and not a result of it. (See next chapter.)

*Reprinted in 1980 by Omangod Press under the title Food Enzymes for Health and Longevity. See also Enzyme Nutrition, E. Howell (Avery Publishing 1984).

Enzyme activity requires the presence of moisture, and varies with temperature and the degree of acidity present. Some enzymes function in an acid environment, others prefer neutral conditions, and some alkaline.

Maximum activity occurs at different temperatures depending on the acid/alkaline balance, and at different degrees of acidity depending on the temperature. In the body, enzymes function more rapidly and more effort can be produced at temperatures above normal. Enzyme activity reaches a maximum at fever temperatures which accompany acute infection, thus accomplishing maximum action by the body's defensive mechanisms.

   In 1921, Professor Eugene Du Bois described in the Journal of the American Medical Association that a rise in temperature from the normal 37°C (98.6°F) to 41°C (105° F) produced a 50% increase in the metabolism of the human body. In 1926, Dr S. Wright in his Applied Physiology stated that for every rise of one degree Fahrenheit, the basal metabolism increases by seven per cent.

   The normal human body temperature ranges from 36°C (97°F) at between 2 and 5 a.m. when the metabolism is slowest, to 37.2°C (99°F) at between 2 and 5 p.m. when the metabolism is greatest.

   These facts, in addition to explaining the function of fever, also explain why it is necessary for athletes to "warm-up" before competition and why drowning people survive longer in cold water.

   Above 42°C (107°C) body enzymes eventually become impaired and if enzymes in raw food are heated to 48°C (118°F) for more than half an hour they are destroyed. It should be noted that the destructive effects of heat are most pronounced when moisture is present. Dry heat is not destructive to enzymes until temperatures above 150°C (302°F) and at lower temperatures than this extracted enzymes in powder form suffer no damage.

   Cold blooded organisms such as insects or reptiles, have body temperatures which vary with the temperature of their surroundings and are sluggish or inactive in cold weather, becoming active in the summer or when able to bask in the sun. In experiments, the metabolism of insects can be speeded enormously by increasing the temperature, but at the same time this greatly shortens their lifespan. Slow moving creatures such as tortoises are capable of living to a great age, and so too are elephants, also slow moving. Elephants have an average body temperature of 35.5°C (96°F), whereas fast moving creatures such as small birds have body temperatures of 42°C (108°F) and are short lived.

   Seeds contain enzymes which are inhibited until exposed to conditions of moisture and temperature favorable to germination. Thus in temperate climates new growth commences in the spring, and maximum growth occurs in the summer. In damp tropical climates lush growth occurs all year round.

   The enzyme potential of seeds is inhibited by specific inhibiting agents in the seed which ensure the seed remains inert and apparently lifeless, perhaps for years, until conditions favorable to germination are encountered. Cooked food keeps well because its natural enzymes which would otherwise decompose it, have been destroyed, and it will only decompose when live enzymes are introduced by various microbes in the air. Because enzymes are inhibited by cold, refrigerated food keeps well and frozen food will keep indefinitely. Similarly, dehydrated food will keep indefinitely because enzymes cannot function without moisture. Canned food also keeps indefinitely because its enzymes have been destroyed by heat and the food sealed in the can from further enzyme contact. Preservatives work by inhibiting enzymes and this is why preserved foods are difficult to digest.

All living organic matter, animal or vegetable, lives only because of enzyme activity, and upon death it is decomposed and returned to the earth by enzyme activity.

The digestion and assimilation of food requires that the food be broken down into constituents which can be absorbed and utilized by the body. Protein must be broken down into usable amino-acids, starch into sugar, and fats split into simple components. Minerals and vitamins must be extracted and either put to immediate use or stored away. All of these actions are accomplished by about a dozen different digestive enzymes acting separately and together. Some of these enzymes exist already in the food if it is uncooked, but the majority are provided in the digestive juices made in the body and secreted into the stomach and intestines. The pancreas provides some of these but most are provided by the cells of the intestinal villi.

   Because cooked food can be digested with apparent ease by most people, it is maintained by some authorities that cooking is relatively harmless to food, depleting only a little from its nourishment. It is also maintained that the destruction of food enzymes by cooking means nothing because the enzymes are supposedly destroyed anyhow in the acid medium of the stomach before the food reaches the intestine. This argument is wrong, it has been shown over and over again that although some of them are destroyed in the stomach, exogenous enzymes (i.e. from outside the body) contained in raw food play an important part not only in assisting the digestive processes, thus relieving the pancreas of extra work, but in addition, are absorbed into the lymph and blood stream to supplement enzyme production within the body.

Dr Howell describes how the digestive enzymes secreted by humans eating cooked foods, are much stronger than those secreted by animals eating raw food, and how the human pancreas is hypertrophied due to overwork. He says: "A separate and distinct organ, the food enzyme stomach, is widespread in Nature. It was evolved specifically to pre-digest food by food enzymes before the body's digestive enzymes come into contact with the food. I have also documented that three outstanding, authoritative texts, Gray's Anatomy, Cunningham's Anatomy and Howells Physiology have recorded that the human stomach consists essentially of two parts--the upper section and the lower section, with different physiological duties. The upper part of the human stomach performs the same function as the food-enzyme stomach of animals, which is the predigestion of food by food enzymes".

The enzyme content of natural food is proportional to the amount of energy (calories) contained. Raw vegetables do not contain a great quantity of enzymes and so salads do little to compensate for the destruction of enzymes in cooked food. Fruit is high in enzyme content. Fruit will ripen rapidly then decompose rapidly in hot weather, while vegetables may only wilt and shrivel. Animal protein foods, meat, fat and dairy products when raw contain valuable enzymes.

Whereas the enzymes of the body's digestive juices or of manufactured enzyme supplements are much stronger than enzymes in raw food, the consumption of raw food stimulates the secretion of weaker hydrochloric acid into the stomach so that exogenous enzymes in the food can perform longer and with greater effect before being neutralized.

Dr Howell describes experiments which show that it is possible for unsplit, complex substances such as bacteria, yeast cells, proteins and fats to be absorbed into the bloodstream and lymph. Such substances in the body fluids are foreign and therefore antigenic,* provoking allergic responses and leucocytosis, the increase in the blood's white cells. The experiments showed that enzymes in the blood serum, if adequate, complete the digestion of these substances. It was shown too, that when enzyme levels were low and symptoms of allergy were present, these symptoms subsided and enzyme levels returned to normal after large doses of pancreatic enzymes were administered orally to the patient.

*Antigens are described in Chapter 19, The Immune System.

   It is argued that cereal foods must be cooked for them to be digested, and this is true for the following reasons: firstly, heat is needed to burst the cellulose envelope surrounding the starch in the cereal so that the digestive juices can get access to the starch, and secondly, the heat not only destroys the natural enzymes but also the enzyme inhibitors which would otherwise prevent the pancreatic enzymes working. In this way cereals can be digested, but more so than with any other cooked food, so many extra digestive enzymes are required that the pancreas is overworked.

   Nuts, considered generally as health food, are seeds and contain enzyme inhibitors which must be neutralized before they can be digested. The best way of obtaining nourishment from seeds and nuts is by germinating them and consuming them raw.

   The regular consumption of cooked food results in the enlargement of the pancreas, and hypertrophy of this organ is the most pronounced in people who consume large amounts of cooked grains (including rice). By comparison, as a percentage of total body weight the human pancreas is over twice the size of the pancreas of herbivorous animals, the only explanation being that humans consume cooked food. Experiments at the University of Minnesota showed that when rats were put on a diet containing 80% heat-treated carbohydrate carefully constructed to contain all nutrients and vitamins, the pancreas and sub-maxillary glands increased in weight 20-30% in a period of 155 days.

   Thus, notwithstanding the fact that cereals of one kind or another constitute the basis of the diets of most humans, this form of food cannot contribute to optimal nutrition. What constitutes optimal nutrition is discussed in later chapters.

   Accompanying the hypertrophy of the pancreas brought about in the digestion of cooked food are changes in the gonads, adrenals, pituitary and other ductless glands. A study of people killed accidentally showed that all of those over 50 had a defective pituitary gland, which is the master gland of the body.

   To say that enlargement of the pancreas demonstrates the capability of the body to adapt, is an argument valid only in the short term. Our object is health and longevity. It was proposed by a health professional in a lecture I heard recently, that manufactured dog food, scientifically prepared to contain a perfect balance of nutrients, was capable of providing perfect nutrition for humans too. Why not? Laboratory animals fed similar scientifically prepared food appear to maintain good health. Such observations however, are not valid because the test animals are always young ones whose lives are terminated before degeneration is evident. In experiments where rats have been kept several years on manufactured food only, the animals have been observed after only two years to develop a variety of pathological conditions, commonly suffered by aged humans, including blindness in half of them, followed by death soon afterwards.

   To conclude with some further remarks from Dr Howell: "At first thought it might be presumed that hypertrophy of the pancreas is a desirable accommodation. But there is always the tendency for the hypertrophy of excessive function to proceed to the atrophy of exhaustion. An atrophy of the pancreas occurs in many terminal wasting diseases".

   Dr Howell's whole argument is that if throughout life the enzyme production within the body is overstrained, in the later years it is inevitable that enzyme levels will diminish sooner than they should, thus accelerating degeneration and old age. Referring to an experiment at Cornell University in which it was shown that the lifespan of rats could be almost doubled by dietary manipulation, Dr Howell said. "After reviewing this work, I cannot see how it is possible to escape the conclusion that when the enzyme reserve (I use this phrase interchangeably with the term vitality) is drawn at a more rapid rate it will be exhausted sooner and consequently life will end earlier".